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DIAMOND

birliant - vybrusThe hardest known mineral on our planet; the only mineral with the hardness grade 10 at the Mohs ten-degree scale of mineral hardness.
Diamonds were formed by the impact of high temperatures and pressure in molten rocks inside the Earth’s crust at the depth between 100 – 160 km. Thanks to volcanic eruptions, they got closer to the Earth surface through so-called volcanic pipes. The youngest diamonds are old approximately 100 million years; the oldest ones up to 1. 2 billion years. Nowadays, the conditions for formation of new natural diamonds do not exist on the Earth any more. The first mentions about findings and mining of raw diamonds come from India, which was the only source of diamonds till the 18th century.
Nowadays, we can process diamonds by cutting into various shapes. The most frequently used is the classical round cut, so-called brilliant (at least 56 facets + top table). This is the basis for the most common name of cut diamonds - brilliants.
To evaluate quality of cut brilliants, the main criteria are so-called 4 Cs (from the English Carat, Clarity, Colour, Cut); i.e. weight in carats, clarity, colours and cut of the stone.
As the only one from natural precious stones, it features in all colour tints, especially in the white colour.
Thanks to their hardness, diamonds were considered mysterious stones in the ancient era; in the ancient legends, they are spoken about as tears of gods fallen on the Earth.